Death Before the Fall
作者: Alastair Roberts 翻译: 駱鴻銘
在Jesus Creed這個部落格裡，RJS 談到墮落之前的死亡。RJS跟隨Ronald Osborn的看法，主張死亡在被造界裡是個問題，尤其是對那些從字面解讀創世記的人來說，更是如此。倘若死亡是從咒詛而來，她主張有三種方式我們可以調和經文和我們所觀察到的事實之間的矛盾：Over on Jesus Creed, . Following Ronald Osborn, she suggests that the place of death within the creation is a problem, especially for those who take Genesis literally. As death is supposed to arise from the curse, she suggests three ways in which we might choose to reconcile the text with the reality that we observe:
God cursed or dramatically modified the animal kingdom after Adam’s Fall.
Predatory animals are a result of demonic forces at work in the world.
我們從經文本身如何能讀出這種觀念呢？I haven’t yet read Osborn, but the following are a few thoughts on a fourth possibility. I believe that this possibility is suggested by reflection upon the text of Genesis itself, rather than being a highly speculative theory to fill a crucial gap in the biblical account. The fourth possibility begins by challenging the premise that there was no animal death before the Fall (along with the assumption that human beings were naturally immortal). The claim that there was no animal death before the Fall is not on
上帝所造的世界原本是「好的」，卻不是「完美的」。在創世記一章2節，整個世界是混沌空虛的，尚未被馴服。二章5節以更小的尺度重述了創世的故事。上帝藉著創造人來解決這個問題。在創造人之後，祂創造了花園，然後把人安置在花園裡。我們可以合理地假設，人親眼見證到這個未成形的、虛空的、尚未被馴服的創造，也見證上帝在當中建造了花園。The world was never created ‘perfect’, but was created ‘good’. In Genesis 1:2, the entire creation was formless, void, and untamed. In Genesis 2:5, this situation is recapitulated on a smaller scale. God begins to address this situation by creating a man. Then, after creating the man, he creates the Garden and places the man within it. It is not unreasonable to assume that the man would have witnessed both the unformed, void, and untamed creation and then God’s planting of the Garden within it.
花園是上帝的聖所，上帝在這裡與人同行，也是解決更廣大的世界的問題的樣板。花園有圍牆或籬笆，不是隨處都可以進去的，好讓在裡面的人可以防衛，防止外物入侵（參創三24）。當上帝創造花園時，祂設立了邊界，未經授權就無法進入，並且將它劃分成幾個地區。創造花園這個行動和創世記第一章一樣，也是塑造和充填的行動。花園被圍牆隔離起來，和未馴服的世界分開，然後以樹木和美景加以充填。花園本身，還有進一步的界限劃分。生命樹和分別善惡樹位於花園的中心。這兩棵樹不只是空間的劃分——位於花園的中心——更創造出一個世界，有著新的倫理道德的疆界。The Garden is the divine sanctuary, the place where God walks in the
midst of mankind, and the template for the solution to the problem of the wider
world. The Garden is walled or hedged and there is limited access to it,
enabling those within it to defend it against intrusion (cf. Genesis 3:24). In
creating the Garden, God establishes boundaries within the land, preventing
unauthorized access and dividing on
James Jordan主張創世記第一章的創造日，和第二章設立花園的事件當中，有幾組平行對照。第一日上帝創造了光，相當於上帝按祂的形象創造人，這是在世間的人的光。第二日，上帝創造了空氣（穹蒼），將「天」、「地」分開，相當於把花園的屬天模式和地上其餘一般性的混沌空虛分開。第三日，從諸水中分出陸地，創造了青草、菜蔬、果樹，相當於創造伊甸園的樹木，有河從伊甸流出，灌溉花園，並將全地劃分為個別的土地。James Jordan suggests a set of parallels between the events of the creation days of Genesis 1 and the establishment of the Garden in Genesis 2, following the formless, void, and untamed situation of Genesis 2:5. The first day, the day when God created light, corresponds to the creation of man in his image, the human light of the world. The second day, when God created the firmament division between heaven and earth, corresponds to the division of the heaven-model of the Garden from the general formless void of the rest of the earth. The third day, the separation of dry land from the waters and the creation of grasses, herbs, and fruit trees, corresponds to the creation of the trees of the Garden and the river that flows out from Eden to water the Garden and to divide the earth into its respective lands.
第四日，把光體放在穹蒼，相當於把人的光，亞當，放在花園的天地當中，作為治理者和祭司。Jordon把第五天（創造空中的飛鳥和水中的大魚）和樹的祝福與咒詛連起來。我更傾向於把第五天和第六天（創造地上的走獸和人類）連起來，把它和上帝創造飛鳥和動物，把牠們帶到亞當面前，讓亞當命名連起來。正如第一章中第六天的創造，其高峰是人類的創造，因此把動物帶到亞當面前命名，其高峰也是上帝從亞當肋旁創造出一個新人，並且帶到亞當面前讓他為她取名。接下來男人和女人在花園裡的結合，相當於第七天，安息日。這樣，被造界更廣大的秩序在創造伊甸園這個世界當中，以縮影的形式重演了，這不只是一個結構上的秩序，也包括時間上的順序。The fourth day, the placing of lights in the firmament of the heavens, corresponds to the placing of the human light, Adam, in the firmament of the Garden as its ruler and priest. Jordan connects the fifth day, the creation of creatures to fly across the face of the firmament above and to teem in the waters beneath, with the blessing and judgment associated with the trees. I am more inclined to join together days five and six (the day of the creation of land creatures and humanity) and relate it to God’s formation of the birds and the animals and his bringing them to Adam to name. Just as the sixth day of the creation of Genesis 1 culminates in the creation of humanity, so the bringing of the animals to Adam to name culminates with God’s formation of a new human from his side, who is brought to him to name. The union of man and woman in the Garden that follows corresponds to the seventh day, the day of rest. In this manner, the larger order of the creation is recapitulated in microcosm in the creation of the world of the Garden, not merely in structural order, but also in its temporal sequence.
人被安置在花園裡擔任祭司。作為祭司，上帝賦予他守衛的職責，要在這個封閉的聖所裡事奉，與上帝同行。上帝也賜給他有關聖潔食物的律法，以及當他的妻子被創造後，他應當如何對待她和他們所生的兒女的律法。祭司要負責維護花園「被馴服的」、「馴養的」特色，並且要鞏固、護衛、加強其邊界。The man is placed within the Garden as the priest. As
the priest, he is charged with the task of guarding and serving the enclosed
sanctuary in the midst of which God walks. He is also given the law concerning
the holy food, a law that he will be expected to treat his wife when she is
created, and to their children after them. The priest is the on
當人維護好花園的秩序，會提供一個模型，他可以把這個模型帶到世界裡，也提供一個樣板，他可以把世界的財寶帶進到這個花園裡（請留意創二10-14所描述的圍繞著伊甸的土地的寶石和金屬）。亞當有責任要把全世界變成花園，把伊甸園變成一個榮耀的花園城市，用世上的各種豐富來裝飾它，有點像我們在啟示錄看到的聖城。As the man upholds the order of the Garden, it will provide a model that he will bring out into the world and a temple into which he will bring in the riches of the world (we should note the references to precious stones and metals in the description of the lands surrounding Eden). He must make the world into a Garden and the Garden into a glorious garden city, clothed with all of the riches of the world, much like the city that we see in Revelation. He learns within and from the order of God’s own creative work, so that he can engage in creative work of his own as God’s image.
世界就像一座還缺少園丁的花園。它是混沌、空虛、未經馴化的，住在其中的野獸也未經馴化。它還需要園丁去制服，並馴養這些野獸。上帝把動物帶到人面前讓他命名。正如上帝在創造人之後建造了花園，提供人一個模型，讓他可以在世界裡作他自己的工作，上帝把動物帶到人面前，也是讓人熟悉他工作的本質。當上帝把一些野獸帶到人面前讓他命名，人就像是一個兒子在學習他父親的榜樣。正如他的天父馴化這些野獸——甚至包括「鱷魚」和「河馬」——他也要行使他對野獸的統治。花園就像上帝的「家」，而野獸必須被「馴養」，人要像牧人，去牧養上帝美好卻尚未馴化的創造。當獅子與羊羔同臥，被馴化的動物被馴養在耶和華的聖殿裡，人的統治就得著了應驗。The world is unlike the Garden and doesn’t yet have any gardener working within it. It is formless, void, and untamed, and the beasts that dwell within it are also untamed. It remains to be subdued by a gardener and a tamer of wild beasts. God brought the animals to the man for him to name. Just as God had planted the Garden after the man’s creation, providing the man with a model for his own work within the world, the bringing of the animals to the man also served to acquaint him with the nature of his task. As God brought the great wild animals to the man to name, the man was like a son learning from his Father’s example. Just as his Father tamed the wild beasts—even the Leviathan and Behemoth—so he was to exercise God’s rule over them. The Garden is to be glorified as God’s ‘domus’ and the wild creation must be ‘domesticated’, as man shepherds God’s good yet untamed creation. The fulfilment of man’s rule is seen when the lion is made to lie down with the lamb, house-trained creatures in the temple of the Lord
.要填滿這幅圖畫，我們必須認識到原始的創造是美好的，但是卻不完美。世界還在其嬰兒期。亞當和夏娃和在幼兒園裡的嬰孩一樣，還是赤身露體的，還要受天使的訓練，但是已經穿上了榮耀和尊貴，要統治整個受造界。上帝在花園的圍牆裡保護他們，讓他們遠離更廣大的世界的曠野。在世上的工作仍有待完成：他們要生養眾多，遍滿地面，治理這地。完美不是被造界天然的狀態，而是其理想的命運（救恩也不是把創造「重新啟動」到它原始的狀態而已，而是讓世界恢復到上帝原本要它在未來要變成的樣式）。To fill out this picture, we must recognize that the original creation was good, yet imperfect. It is a world in its infancy. Adam and Eve are naked like infants in a kindergarten, under the training of angels, not yet clothed with glory and honour as rulers over the whole creation. God protects them from the wildness of the wider world within the walls of the Garden. The task within the world still remains to be done: they have yet to be fruitful, multiply, fill the world, and subdue it. Perfection was not the creation’s natural state, but its intended destiny (and salvation is not a ‘rebooting’ of creation to its primary state, but the restoring of creation to the future that God originally intended for it).
死亡和不成熟在許多方面是相關的。我已經提到尚未馴化的問題。死亡也是成長的一部引擎。它把老舊的清理掉，讓路給新來的。沒有死亡，世界很容易就變成一潭死水。沒有任何風可以吹走古老世代流行的意識形態的陳腐風氣。世界就會變成一個毫無可能性的地方，沒有重新啟航的餘地。Death is related to immaturity in various ways. I have already mentioned the issue of being untamed. Death is also an engine of growth. It clears away the old to make way for the new. Without death the world could easily become stagnant. No wind would blow away the stale air of an older generation’s prevailing ideologies. The world would be a place of exhausted possibilities, with little space within which a novel departure could occur.
死亡可以成為新生命的起點，當我們向一個舊的存在形式死去，就是向一個更榮耀的形式復活（一粒麥子不落在地裡死了……）。哥林多前書十五章35-49節暗示，亞當原本的身體不是不朽的，是會死的，上帝的定旨是它會成為一個榮耀的、被聖靈充滿的身體，而一個「善終」（good death）是一個必要的機制，藉著這個機制，才會得到榮耀的身體。當基督擔當了「橫死」（bad death）的異化，我們才能把死亡看作是一樁好事，因為死亡會拯救我們脫離亞當必死的身體，做好準備，穿上更榮耀的身體。‘Death’ can be part of the means by which new life comes, as we die to an old form of existence and are raised up to another more glorious form (‘unless a grain of wheat falls into the ground and dies…’). 1 Corinthians 15:35-49 would suggest that Adam’s original physicality was immature too, that it was always destined to become a glorious spiritually empowered mode of bodily existence, and that a ‘good death’ was an essential mechanism by which this would take place. As Christ bears the alienation of ‘bad death’, we are able to view death as a good thing, as that which delivers us from our old failing Adamic bodies in preparation for being clothed with a much more glorious physicality.
這個尚未成熟的世界也是一個只具有道德雛形的世界。天真無邪不是一個理想的道德境界。它的特色是道德上的天真，缺乏善惡的知識。新生嬰兒的純真是沒有能力採取道德上的行動，無力行善或行惡。嬰兒在道德上是不會「墮落」的，因為它根本連「站立」都還不會。同樣，動物也不會像人類一樣犯罪，這不是因為牠們是完美的，而是因為牠們不具備人類的道德能力。一個不成熟的世界是一個在人生的道德責任上只具備有限能力的世界。許多人都觀察到，暴力傾向的罪犯只是未曾長大的兩歲嬰孩，從來沒有學會不用嬰孩的方式來面對世界。就同一方面來說，人類在墮落前的無罪狀況，不能被認定是道德上的完美，例如，可以完全做到十誡的要求。關於知識善惡樹的誡命只是假設領受此誡命的人只具備有限的道德能力（聖經的證據也強烈暗示，當亞當和夏娃成熟時，上帝會賜給他們知識善惡樹上的果子）。基督的無罪和墮落之前的亞當是徹底不同的。The immature world is also a world of inchoate ethics.
Innocence is not an ideal moral state, but is characterized by moral naivety
and a lack of knowledge of good and evil. The innocence of the newborn is its incapacity for moral act
一個嬰孩尚未能知道善惡，他們必須接受外來吩咐的指導，上帝就是這樣來訓練亞當夏娃的。這也是他們能墮落的原因。然而，隨著他們成熟，我們會從內心越來越傾向良善，道德也開始根據不同的原則（智慧、理性的說服，等等）來運作。當我們到達完美的狀態，我們意志的能力強到可以心領神會到我們的良善，以至於我們不會願意去行惡，不是因為有外在的強迫，而是因為成熟的意志和本性，以及它們彼此合宜的對等關係。As infants don’t yet know good from evil, they must be directed to the good by external command, which is how God trained Adam and Eve. It is also why they were capable of falling. However, with maturity, we are more internally oriented to the good and ethics starts to function according to different principles (wisdom, persuasion, etc.). With perfection, our wills will be so capable of apprehending our good that we will no longer be capable of willing to do evil, not by virtue of some external compulsion, but by virtue of mature wills and natures and their appropriate mutual correspondence.
在墮落後對亞當的審判，在這幅圖畫裡扮演了什麼角色呢？How does the judgment upon Adam following the Fall play into this picture?
首先，在墮落之後，在馴化、給予秩序、制服被造界的任務上，亞當會發現到，被造萬物對他的努力的抗拒更加有力。他想要讓被造世界變成一個花園，而被造界卻以荊棘和蒺藜來反撲。他必須以苦毒和痛苦來從事這項上帝賦予他的工作。他想要制服的野獸甚至會奪取他的性命。他沒有能力制服被造界，自然界的暴力甚至會與日俱增（創九1-7是一個重大的發展，它給予人相對於野獸更大的能力）。First, after the Fall, in the task of taming, ordering, and mastering the creation, Adam would find that the creation would be far more powerfully resistant to his efforts. He would try to make the creation into a garden and the creation would fight back with thorns and thistles. He would have to engage in the task given to him with bitterness and pain. The beasts that he needed to tame might even take his life. He wouldn’t have the power to hold the creation in check and the violence of the natural order would increase (Genesis 9:1-7 is a significant development, as it gives men greater power relative to the wild animals).
其次，當上帝把人類從伊甸園趕出去，人類就失去了伊甸園圍牆和籬笆的保護。亞當和夏娃從伊甸園被逐出，他們必須生活在野外，在一個未經馴化和富有敵意的世界裡。就如上帝撤去圍繞在約伯身旁，保護他避免撒但和他的敵人對他的攻擊的「籬笆」（伯一10），上帝也讓亞當和夏娃容易受到傷害或被野獸、自然界的勢力、撒但、罪惡、，以及之後人類暴力的攻擊。Second, by expelling man from the Garden, God removed mankind from the protection of its walls and hedges. Cast out from the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve would have to operate in the wild, in an untamed and hostile world. Much as God removed the ‘hedge’ surrounding Job and protecting him from the assaults of Satan and his enemies (cf. Job 1:10), so God made Adam and Eve vulnerable to being harmed or attacked by wild beasts, natural forces, Satan, sin, and later human violence.
第三，從RJS的部落格文章的第三點來看，並且聯繫到前一點，聖經裡暗示魔鬼的勢力可以對造界造成一定的影響（例如在花園裡的蛇）。撤除了保護亞當和夏娃的籬笆，上帝就給撒但和牠的勢力一條更長的皮帶，在上帝允許的範圍內，撒但可以攻擊他們。蛇必要吃土，但是亞當也被提醒，他來自塵土，也要歸回塵土：蛇的獵物。既然祂的兒女拒絕祂，上帝就不會以同樣的程度保護他們免受被造界裡面的敵對勢力所害。Third, picking up on the third possibility identified in RJS’s post and related to the previous point, there are suggestions in Scripture that demonic forces can exercise a measure of power within the created world and over its forces (not least in the instance of the serpent in the Garden). By lifting the hedge of protection from Adam and Eve, God gave Satan and his forces a longer leash with which to attack them. The serpent was to eat dust, but Adam was reminded that he was dust and that he would return to it: prey of the serpent. As his children rejected him, God would not protect them in from the hostile forces within the creation to the same extent.
第四，亞當夏娃被趕出伊甸園後，他們就失去了接近生命樹的權利，也失去與上帝同在的權利。既然他們與生命的泉源隔絕了，就會開始枯萎，因為他們自身沒有生命的資源。從上帝的同在中被剪除，我們的身體和靈性都受到墳墓的吸引，趨向死亡。Fourth, by expelling Adam and Eve from the Garden, they were denied access to the holy food of the Tree of Life and to the transfiguring presence of God. Cut off from the source of their life, they would wither, as they had no source of life in themselves. Cut off from God’s vivifying presence, we gravitate to the grave, physically as well as spiritually.
我是以一個更豐富、更合乎聖經的方式提出以上的大綱，希望能更好地明白死亡在創世記描繪的原始創造中所扮演的角色。除了能幫助我們更明白創世記之外，它也提供一些關鍵的洞見，幫助我們更明白基督的位格和工作。I submit that the proposal outlined above is a much richer, more biblical, and a considerably more satisfying way of understanding the role of death within the original creation as described by Genesis. In addition to its value in understanding Genesis, it also provides us with a number of key insights that help us better to understand the work and person of Christ.
首先，基督的順服不在於「天真無邪」，而在於「完美」。基督把人類帶到上帝原本要它達到的高度和完全的狀態。祂賜給我們的，不只是天真無邪或順服，而是完全的成熟。First, Christ’s obedience is not about ‘innocence’ but about ‘perfection’. Christ brings humanity to the height and fullness of its divinely intended moral stature. He gives us, not merely innocence or obedience, but full maturity.
其次，上帝原本的打算就是要讓人類死亡，並復活到一個更榮耀的生命。基督的死和復活達致了這個命運。Second, humanity was always intended to die and rise again to a more glorious form of life. Christ death and resurrection achieves this destiny.
第三，身為末後的亞當，基督會馴服整個被造界，使它安靜下來，統治它，直到所有的仇敵都伏在祂的腳下。Third, as the last Adam, Christ will pacify and tame the entire creation, ruling until every enemy is placed under his feet.
第四，倘若我們在基督裡，死亡的惡性就會減到最低。我們被剝去衣服不是為了變成赤身露體，而是為了能穿戴完全，讓死亡被生命吞沒。我們仍然會受這個世界的敵意所攻擊，會死在這個世界裡，但是死亡不再像過去一樣，是個異化的能力。Fourth, as we are in Christ, the bad character of
death is minimized. We are not unclothed to be left naked, but in order to be
more fully clothed, to have death swallowed up in life. We are still subject to
the hostile attacks of the world and to the possibility of death within it, but
Christ is the Tree of Life and we have unrestricted access to him. Death is no
longer the alienating power that it on